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September 23, 2017, 08:20:10 PM
13 Posts in 13 Topics by 24 Members
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 1 
 on: January 04, 2008, 08:00:06 AM 
Started by akhabar - Last post by akhabar
Dr. Coulibaly, how is the response towards this internet forum so far?

 2 
 on: December 14, 2007, 09:09:29 AM 
Started by coulibaly - Last post by coulibaly
La contamination par les HAP peut être détectée dans les échantillons de fèves de cacao collectées dans les zones de chacune des principales régions de cacaoculture où le séchage artificiel est utilisé lorsque les conditions météorologiques et/ou les délais empêchent d’effectuer un séchage au soleil

 3 
 on: November 10, 2007, 10:35:23 AM 
Started by webmaster - Last post by webmaster
There are three main varieties of the Theobroma cacao: Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario. The first comprises 95% of the world production of cacao, and is the most widely used. Overall, the highest quality of cacao comes from the Criollo variety and is considered a delicacy; however, Criollo is harder to produce, hence very few countries produce it, with the majority of production coming from Venezuela (Chuao and Porcelana). The Trinitario is a mix between Criollo and Forastero.

The Netherlands is the leading cocoa processing country, followed by the U.S..

Harvesting
 
Cocoa pods in various stages of ripeningWhen the pods ripen, they are harvested from the trunks and branches of the Cocoa tree with a curved knife on a long pole. The pod itself is green when ready to harvest, rather than red or orange. Normally, red or orange pods are considered of a lesser quality because their flavors and aromas are poorer; these are used for industrial chocolate. The pods are either opened on the field and the seeds extracted and carried to the fermentation area on the plantation, or the whole pods are taken to the fermentation area.


Processing
The harvested pods are opened with a machete, the pulp and cocoa seeds are removed and the rind is discarded. The pulp and seeds are then piled in heaps, placed in bins, or laid out on grates for several days. During this time, the seeds and pulp undergo "sweating", where the thick pulp liquifies as it ferments. The fermented pulp trickles away, leaving cocoa seeds behind to be collected. Sweating is important for the quality of the beans, which originally have a strong bitter taste. If sweating is interrupted, the resulting cocoa may be ruined; if underdone the cocoa seed maintains a flavor similar to raw potatoes and becomes susceptible to mildew.

The liquified pulp is used by some cocoa producing countries to distill alcoholic spirits.


The fermented beans are dried by spreading them out over a large surface and constantly raking them. In large plantations, this is done on huge trays under the sun or by using artificial heat. Small plantations may dry their harvest on little trays or on cowhides. Finally, the beans are trodden and shuffled about (often using bare human feet) and sometimes, during this process, red clay mixed with water is sprinkled over the beans to obtain a finer color, polish, and protection against molds during shipment to factories in the United States, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and other countries. Drying in the sun is preferable to drying by artificial means, as no extraneous flavors such as smoke or oil are introduced which might otherwise taint the flavor.



 4 
 on: November 10, 2007, 10:33:20 AM 
Started by webmaster - Last post by webmaster
Chocolate and cocoa contain a high level of flavonoids, specifically epicatechin, which may have beneficial cardiovascular effects on health. The ingestion of flavonol-rich cocoa is associated with acute elevation of circulating nitric oxide, enhanced flow-mediated vasodilation, and augmented microcirculation.

Prolonged intake of flavonol-rich cocoa has been linked to cardiovascular health benefits, though it should be noted that this refers to plain cocoa and dark chocolate. Milk chocolate's addition of whole milk reduces the overall cocoa content per ounce while increasing saturated fat levels, possibly negating some of cocoa's heart-healthy potential benefits. Nevertheless, studies have still found short term benefits in LDL cholesterol levels from dark chocolate consumption.

Hollenberg and colleagues of Harvard Medical School studied the effects of cocoa and flavanols on Panama's Kuna Indian population, who are heavy consumers of cocoa. The researchers found that the Kuna Indians living on the islands had significantly lower rates of heart disease and cancer compared to those on the mainland who do not drink cocoa as on the islands. It is believed that the improved blood flow after consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa may help to achieve health benefits in hearts and other organs. In particular, the benefits may extend to the brain and have important implications for learning and memory.
Foods rich in cocoa appear to reduce blood pressure but drinking green and black tea may not, according to an analysis of previously published research in the April 9, 2007 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

 5 
 on: November 10, 2007, 09:24:34 AM 
Started by webmaster - Last post by webmaster
Physiology (from Greek:  physis, “nature, origin”; and  logos, "speech" lit. "to talk about the nature (of things)") is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.

Physiology has traditionally been divided between plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells may also apply to human cells.

The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human animal species. Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. Its scope of subjects is at least as diverse as the tree of life itself. Due to this diversity of subjects, research in animal physiology tends to concentrate on understanding how physiological traits changed throughout the evolutionary history of animals. Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, paleobiology, biomechanics, and pharmacology.


 6 
 on: November 10, 2007, 09:20:27 AM 
Started by webmaster - Last post by webmaster
Agronomists study ways to make soils more productive. They classify soils and reproduce them to determine whether they contain substances vital to plant growth. Such nutritional substances include compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. If certain soil is deficient in these substances, fertilizers may provide them. Agronomists investigate the movement of nutrients through the soil, and the amount of nutrients absorbed by a plant's roots. Agronomists also examine the development of the roots and their relation to the soil. They also use fertlizer to make it more effective and do other things.


 7 
 on: November 10, 2007, 09:19:28 AM 
Started by webmaster - Last post by webmaster
Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of field crops and grassland management and the soils in which they grow. It involves the production of food products from farming, the production of animal feed and fiber crops. Turf grass, pasture and rangeland management also are covered.  Agronomists work to develop methods that will improve the use of soil and increase the production of food, fiber and nutraceutical crops. They conduct research in crop rotation, irrigation and drainage, plant breeding, soil classification, soil fertility, weed control, insect and pest control and other areas.


 8 
 on: November 10, 2007, 09:16:40 AM 
Started by coulibaly - Last post by coulibaly
Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. -National Agroforestry Center.

"Agroforestry is a collective name for land use systems and practices in which woody perennials are deliberately integrated with crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. The integration can be either in a spatial mixture or in a temporal sequence. There are normally both ecological and economic interactions between woody and non-woody components in agroforestry". It means that trees are intentionally used within agricultural systems. Knowledge, careful selection of species and good management of trees and crops are needed to maximize the production and positive effects of trees and to minimize negative competitive effects on crops.

Alternatively, agroforestry might be defined as simply: trees on farms . Hence, agroforestry, farm forestry and family forestry can be broadly understood as the commitment of farmers, alone or in partnerships, towards the establishment and management of forests on their land. Where many landholders are involved the result is a diversity of activity that reflects the diversity of aspirations and interests within the community.

Agroforestry is a land-use method that allows trees to grow in crop and livestock areas. It is one way to conserve biodiversity. Human activity and specifically habitat destruction have dramatically increased rates of biodiversity loss. It is extremely important to maintain the proper functioning of ecosystems and society. It is the diversity of life that makes this planet extraordinary. Oil, coal, cement, and limestone are all part of the past biodiversity on which our economies depend. The majority of our medicines and agricultural crops come from the environment. It is also important for providing ecosystem services such as pollination and pest control.


 9 
 on: October 31, 2007, 10:51:00 PM 
Started by shankar - Last post by shankar
Hi, I am testing for the public forum in which a guest can see the things where as he cannot post

 10 
 on: July 16, 2007, 12:23:53 PM 
Started by Simple Machines - Last post by Simple Machines
Welcome to Simple Machines Forum!

We hope you enjoy using your forum.  If you have any problems, please feel free to ask us for assistance.

Thanks!
Simple Machines

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