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Alliance of Cocoa
Producing Countries

National Assembly Complex
Tafawa Balewa Square
P.O. Box 1718
Lagos, Nigeria
+234-70-9814-1735
+234-70-9814-1736
Fax:
+234-70-9814-1734
info@copal-cpa.org
17icrc@copal-cpa.org

Member Countries

Brazil

BRAZIL

General Information:

  • Geography
    Area: 8.5 million km2.
  • Demography
    Population: 162 million Inhabitants (1999)
    Population Growth Rate:
    19 per 1000
    Official Language: Portuguese.
  • Politics
    Capital City: Brasilia
    Major Cities:
    Sao Paulo (17 million inhabitants)
    Rio de Janeiro (11 million inhabitants)
    1822: Independence of the Brazil Empire.
  • Economy
    GDP: USD 589 billion (2000)
    GDP: per head USD 3453
    Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2001)
    Prices Increase: +7% (May 2001/May 2000)
    Currency: Real.

Cocoa Economy

Historical background of cocoa farming
First productions: Brazil seems to be the first cocoa producing country.

  • Annual production
    162,800 tonnes in 2001 and 125,000 tonnes in 2002 (exported)
  • Overall land used for cocoa farming: 680,000 hectares (2000).
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Local consumption: about 100,000 to 110,000 tonnes per year.
    Main cocoa-related products manufacturing and marketing companies LACTA, NESTLE and GAROTO (chocolate factories)
    Market regulation policy: the cocoa sector is completely liberalized.
  • Government cocoa policy:
    Institutions in charge of follow-up: CEPLAC (Financing, Research and Development Body)

Cameroon

CAMEROON

General Information:

  • Geography
    Cameroon is located in the heart of Africa, around the Guinean Gulf. The area of Cameroon is 475 442 km2. The country is dominated by two main climates: the dry tropical climate in the north and a muggy subequatorial in the South.
  • Demography
    Total population: 15,5 million inhabitants (1999)
    Population growth rate: +2,7%
    Urban population rate: 46,4%
    Life expectancy: 54,5 years (1997)
    Official Languages: French and English.
  • Politics
    Date of Independence: 1st January 1960
    Capital: Yaounde
    (1,1 million inhabitants)
    National Day: 20th May.
  • Economy
    Currency: CFA franc
    (100 CFAF = 0.16 USD)
    Grass National Product per capita: 700 USD
    Growth rate about 5% per year
    Main products exported: crude oil (36%)
    wood, cocoa, aluminum, coffee.

Cocoa Economy:

Proportion of the agricultural sector in the GDP
Weight in the GDP: 42%
Man power used: 60% of the active population.

  • Main cash crops
    sugar cane (1.4 million tonnes), palm nuts (1 million tonnes), bananas (990,000 tonnes), cotton grains (140,000 tonnes).
  • Historical background of cocoa farming
    First productions: 1890
    Average age of plantation: 50% of cocoa plants are more than 30 years.
  • Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation income: 5 to 10:
    Man power used: only about 1 385 391 farmers who live in the center, South and East provinces are directly involved in cocoa farming. That represents over 10% of the total population.
  • Annual production
    135,000 tonnes in 2001 and 125,000 tonnes in 2002 [sixth {6th} world producer].
    The overall land used for cocoa farming is roughly 420,000 hectares.
  • Cocoa domestic market: Main cocoa companies: SIC - CACAO (processing), CHOCOCAM (chocolate factory).
    Market regulations policy: with the creation of the NCCB, the cocoa area was liberalized in 1991.
  • Government cocoa Policy-on-going programmes:
    The national recovery programmes aims at raising the annual production to 200,000 tonnes by the year 2010 and the chocolate market proportion to 5 to 10% of the national production.

    The national agricultural vulgarization programme that will offer easy access to selected seeds.

    Institutions in charge of follow-up: The National Cocoa and Coffee Board (NCCB), the cocoa and Coffee Interprofessional Board (CICC).

    Other cocoa-related Institution: the Cocoa Development Company (SODECAO).

  • Main cocoa-related problems:
    Besides the problems relating to the state of the economy (mostly world prices fluctuations) the cocoa sector is also faced with the problem of ageing plantations and manpower technological backwardness and lack of adequate conservation and storage equipment. These problems make the cocoa production sector poor and inefficient.

Cote d'Ivoire

CÔTE D'IVOIRE

General Information

  • Geography
    Area: 322,462 km2 There are two (2) main climates and vegetables. In the South of the 8th parallel, there is the subequatorial climate with high temperature and moist this climate is dominant in each of the four (4) zones. Towards the North, there is a two-seasoned tropical climate.
  • Demography
    Total population: 15,8 million inhabitants (1999)
    Population growth: 2,7%
    Life expectancy: 50 years
    Official language: French.
  • Politics
    Date of Independence: 7th August 1960
    Capital: Yamoussoukro
    National Day: 7th August.
  • Economy
    Currency CFA franc (ICFAC = 0,16 dollars)
    Gross National Product per capita 700 dollars
    Main products exported cocoa 32,7%, coffee (9.2%), wood (9.3%) oil products (10.2%).

Cocoa Economy:

  • Proportion of the agricultural sector GDP
    Weight in the GDP: over 15%
    Man power used: 15% of the rural population.
  • Historical Background of cocoa farming
    First productions around the end of the 19th century
    Average age of plantations.
  • Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation income: about 30%
    Proportion in the GDP: about 15%
    Man power used: about 1 000 000 farmers.
  • Annual production
    1 175 000 tonnes in 2001 and 1 190 000 tonnes in 2002 (leading world producer).
  • Overall land used for cocoa farming
    2 250 000 hectares (6% of the national territory).
  • Cocoa Domestic market
    Market regulation policy: the cocoa sector was completely liberalized on the 12th of August 1999.
  • Government cocoa policy-on-going programmes:
    Information Programme on the Cocoa and Coffee Markets (PRIMAC).
    Programme for the intensification of local processing 50% of the overall cocoa production in the year 2005, etc.
    Other cocoa-related institutions:
    National Agency for Rural Development (ANADER),
    Cote d'Ivoire Exportation Professional Association (APEXCI),
    Cocoa & Coffee Interprofessional Board (CICC),
    Raw Materials Interministerial Board (CIMP)
    The new CAISTAB.
  • Main Problems: Price fluctuations

Dominican Republic

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

General Information:

  • Geography
    The Dominican Republic is located in the Caribbean Islands.
    Area: 48,442 km2.
  • Demography
    Total population: 8,5 million inhabitants
    Population growth rate: +1,63%
    Life expectancy: 73,44 years
    Official language: Spanish.
  • Politics
    Capital: Santo Domingo de Guzman (2,5 million inhabitants)
    National day: 27 February.

Cocoa economy:

  • Historical background of cocoa farming
    First productions' cocoa was introduced many centuries ago, but Exportation actually started from 1864.
  • Socio-economy impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the GDP 2%
    Roughly 40 000 households are directly involved in cocoa farming and more than 350 000 households depend indirectly on it.
  • Annual producing
    44 900 tonnes in 2001 and 45 000 tonnes in 2002 (9th world producer).
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Local consumption: about 5 to 8% of cocoa produced
    Main cocoa companies: Cortes Hermanos S.A., Munne 1 co., SA and Chocolate Antillano, Sa processes 23% of the total production.
    Market regulation policy: the market is liberalized.
  • Main Problems:
    Fall in prices, cocoa processing (95% of the Dominican cocoa is the non- fermented variety; that makes the marketing very difficult.

Gabon

GABON

General Information

  • Geography
    Area: 265 667 km2
    In Gabon, there is a mixture of equatorial and moist and moist tropical climate with a rainy season (from September to March) and a dry season (from June to August).
  • Demography
    Total population: 2,2 million Inhabitants (1999)
    Population growth: 3%
    Life expectancy: 52,5years
    Official language: French
  • Politics
    Date of independence: 17th August 1960
    Capital: Libreville (362 000 inhabitants)
    National day: 17th August
  • Economy
    Currency: CFA franc (100 CFA f=0,16 USD)
    Gross national product per capita: 3 950 $ (1998)
    Main products exported: oil (74%), Wood (14%), manganese (7%), uranium.

Cocoa economy

Proportion of the agricultural sector in the GDP
Weight in the GDP
Main power used: 42% of the active population.

  • Historical background of cocoa farming
    First productions: around 1892
    Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector.
  • Manpower used:
    Roughly 5,000 producers and more than 250,000 persons depend on this sector.
  • Annual production
    400 tonnes in 2001 and 2002.
  • Overall land used for cocoa farming
    80% of the plantations are found in the north province.
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Local consumption is insignificant and depends solely on the imports;
    Market regulation policy: the market is controlled by stabilization and equalization funds
  • Government cocoa policy
    On-going programs (goals)
    Partnership program with ICCO that aims at producing 10 000 tonnes of cocoa per year in 10 years time;
    Cocoa Development in the Woleu ntem.
    Institutions in charge of follow-up:
    Agricultural Production Development Board (BDPA);
    Gabon's Cocoa and coffee Company (SOCAGAB)
    Integrated Zonal Operations (OZI)
    Spreading Operations (OD)
    Industrial Blocks Operations (OBI).
  • Main Problems
    Competition with then oil sector.
    Fall in prices.

Ghana

GHANA

General Information

  • Geography
    Area: 238,537 km2
  • Climate
    There are two main climates with four seasons: In the north, there are two Seasoned muggy tropical climate SouthWest the rainforests are replaced by Savannah planted with trees towards the East and the North.
  • Demography
    Total population; 19,7 million inhabitants (1999)
    Population growth rate: 2,9%
    Life expectancy: 60 years
    Official language: English
  • Politics
    Date of Independence: 6th March 1957
    Capital: Accra (1,7 million Inhabitants)
    National days: 6th March &1st July
  • Economy
    Currency: cell (1cell = 0,038 USD)
    Gross National product per capital: 390 $ (1998)
    Main products exported gold (39%), cocoa (35%) and wood.

Cocoa Economy

Historical background of cocoa farming
A black slave named Teteth Quarsie in the middle of the 19th century introduced Cocoa.

  • Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation income: roughly 25 to 30%
    Proportion in the GDP about 4% in the 1990.
    Man power used: about 700 000 produced and 12 000 others persons in related sectors.
  • Annual production
    395,000 tonnes in 2001 and 2002.
    Overall land used for cocoa farming 1,200 000 hectares
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Main cocoa - related products manufacturing companies.
    Main regulation policy : The market is controlled by the cocoa board that advises the Government on the production prices and supervises the purchase of the farmers' cocoa.
  • Government cocoa policy
    On-going programs (goals)
    Institutions in charge of follow-up: Cocoa Board Cocoa Marketing Company (subsidiary), Cocoa research Institution.
    Other cocoa-related institutions.
  • Main problems
    Diseases such as edema that attacks young shoots, brown rot, etc
    Fall in prices

Malaysia

MALAYSIA

General Information

  • Geography
    Area: 329,750sq km (204,445sq ml) Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in SouthEast Asia. Several decades of sustained economic growth and political stability have made it one of the most buoyant and wealthy countries in the region. Malaysia has moved towards a pluralist culture based on a vibrant and interesting fusion of Malay, Chinese, India and Indigenous cultures and customs.
  • Demography
    Population: 22 million
    People: 50% Malay, 33% Chinese, 9%
    Indian, plus Indigenous tribes such as Orange and Iban
    Language: Bahasa Malaysia, English, Chinese dialects, Tamil, Indigenous dialects.
    Religion: 52% Muslim, 17% Buddhist, 12% Toast, 8% Christian, 8% Hindu, 2% tribal.
  • Politics
    Capital city: Kuala Lumpur (pop1.2million)
    Government: Parliamentary monarchy
    Head of State : King: Tuanku Salehuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Ibnl al Marhum Hisamuddin Alam Shah
    Prime Minister: Dr Mahathir Mohamad
  • Economy
    GDP: USS99 billion
    GDP per head: USS4530
    Annual growth: 2%
    Inflation: 4%
    Major products/Industries: Tin, rubber, palm oil, textiles and electronics
    Major trading partners: Singapore, Japan and USA.

Cocoa Economy

Historical background of cocoa farming
First productions: 1788
Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
Proportion in the export income: 2%

  • Annual Production
    35,000 tonnes in 2001 and 40 000 tonnes in 2002.
  • Overall land used for cocoa farming
    121 000 hectares.
  • Cocoa domestic market
    local processing capacity is estimated at 100 000 tonnes. Therefore, Malaysia is a great cocoa beans importer.
  • Government cocoa policy
    On-going programs
    3rd national agricultural policy (NAP3) aimed at encouraging production;
    2nd National Master plan (IMP2) centered on the development of the cocoa sector, most especially the production.
    Institution in charge of the follow-up Malaysia Cocoa Board.
  • Main problems
    Price fluctuations
    Competition with palm oil
    Diseases such as cocoa pod borers (coropomorpha crameralla).

Nigeria

NIGERIA

General Information

The area of the Federal republic of Nigeria is 923 768 km2. The country is dominated by two [2] main climates and vegetations: a fourseasoned moist subequatorial climate in the South and a tropical climate that evolves from the Guinean to the Sudanese and even the sahelian climate.

  • Demography
    Total Population: 120 millions inhabitants
    Population growth rate : +3%
    Town planning rate: 59%
    Life expectancy: 54% years [1999]
    Official language: English
  • Politics
    Date of Independence: 1st October 1960
    Capital: Abuja
    National day: 1st October
  • Economy
    Currency: The naira
    -Gross National Product per head; 300 USD [1998]
    Main products exported: crude oil (95%) cocoa national rubber etcÉ

Cocoa Economy

  • Main cash exported
    Cocoa, pineapple, groundnuts, yams, cassava, okro, etcÉ
  • Historical background of farming
    First production: 1874
    Average age of plantations: 25 to 30 years.
  • Socio -economic impact of cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation Income: less than 2%
    About thirty thousand [30,000] household depend on the cocoa economy.
  • Annual production
    180,000 tonnes in 2001 and 170,000 tonnes in 2002 [fourth [4th] world producers].
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Market regulation policy: the cocoa sector was liberalized in 1986 with the dissolution of the Nigeria Cocoa Board and later closing-down of the Nigeria produce marketing Board.
  • Cocoa policy
    The Government has launched the Industrial Crops Production Program aimed at regenerating cocoa plantations.
  • Main problems
    Quality control is the major concern; there are other problems such as competition with the oil sector and the ageing of plantations.

Sao Tome & Principe

SÃO TOMÉ & PRÍNCIPE

General Information

  • Geography
    These two Atlantic Islands are located on the Equator and are 300 km from the Gabonese coast. Their area is 99.2 km2. They are mountainous scenery/landscape with mountains that are 2000m high.
  • Demography
    Total population: 200,000 inhabitants (1998)
    Population growth rate: +3.4%
    Life expectancy: 63.5 years
    Town planning rate: 44.2%
    Official language: Portuguese
    Working population:
    Agriculture: 81%
    Manufacturing: 4%
    Service: 15%
  • Politics
    Multi-party republic headed by a president.
    Constitution was adopted in 1975
  • Administration
    2 Island and 7 districts
  • Economy
    Currency: Dobra
    Gross National product per capita: 250 USD (1995)

Cocoa Economy

Proportion of the Agricultural sector in the GDP
Weight I the GDP: 69% (1994)
Manpower used: 81% of population (1994)

  • Main cash crops products exported (1998)
    Coconuts (26,000 tonnes)
    Palm nuts (20,000 tonnes)
    Bananas (15,000 tonnes)
    Cocoa (28,000 tonnes)
  • Historical background of cocoa farming
    First production: The Brazilian cocoa was introduced in Sao Tome & Principe in 1922 and at the beginning of the 20th century. This country was the world leading producer.
  • Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation income: 19.6%
    Manpower used: 600,000 farmers
  • Annual production
    3,800 tonnes in 2001
    3,800 tonnes in 2002
    The overall land used for cocoa farming is 25,000 hectares.

Togo

TOGO

General Information

  • Geography
    Area: 56,785 km2
    Climate: Two climatic zones: the dry tropical climate in the north with two seasons (rains from April to October), a four-seasoned subequatorial climate in the south.
  • Demography
    Total population: 4.5 million inhabitants
    Population growth rate: +2.6%
    Life expectancy: 49 years (1977)
    Official language: French
  • Politics
    Date of Independence: 27th April 1960
    Capital: Lomè (800,000 inhabitants)
    National Day: 27th April
  • Economy
    Currency: CFA franc
    Gross National product per capita: 330 USD
  • Main products exported
    Cotton (24.5%)
    Phosphate (22%)
    Cocoa (19.6%)
    Coffee (11.6%)

Cocoa Economy

Proportion of the Agricultural sector in the GDP
Weight I the GDP: 42% (1998)

  • Historical background of cocoa farming
    First production: 1890
    Average of plantations: 50% of cocoa plants are more than 30 years old
  • Socio-economic impact of the cocoa sector
    Proportion in the exportation income: 19.6%
    Manpower used: 600,000 farmers
  • Annual production
    6500 tonnes in 2001
    7000 tonnes in 2002
  • Cocoa domestic market
    Market regulation policy: The cocoa sector was completely liberalized in 1991
  • Government cocoa policy
    The liberalization program aims at improving the standard of living of farmers and the performances of the cocoa and coffee sector
  • Main problems
    The major problems faced by the cocoa sector are linked to ageing plantations, lack of interest from farmers due to the fall in prices and quality control.


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